For the 8-th Form

    C2. STUDENT CARD 7

    Give a talk on “The Mass Media”.

    Remember to speak about:

    •         what the role of the mass media is;

    •         which of the mass media you prefer and why;

    •         what your favourite TV or radio programs, or printed editions are and why.

    You will need to speak for about 5 minutes. After that the examiner will ask you some questions.

     
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    C2. STUDENT CARD 8

    Give a talk on “Travelling”.

    Remember to speak about:

    •         why people travel;

    •         which means of travelling you prefer and why;

    •         which things can make your journey more pleasant or spoil it.

    You will need to speak for about 5 minutes. After that the examiner will ask you some questions.

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    Topic: 'The world of science and technology'.(1)

         Technology provides science with new and more accurate instruments for further investigation and research for example the invention of a computer brought to our life many interesting challenging opportunities. The advent of computer has made it possible to obtain any information we need through the World Web without getting up from the chair. We are so used to these things, that we them without giving any thought to the fact that they all are results of advanced in science and technology, and we find it very hard to do without the conveniences they provide. 

            One of the most contradicting aspects of computer usage is virtual reality problem. Virtual reality helps user’s interaction with simulated images in make-believe world. In today’s virtual world people can do a lot of things: doctors practice operation on different parts of the body, students and tourists can learn history and geography by having excursions to faraway places.
          The biggest question is what virtual reality will mean for human ethics and morality, and if it can do more harm than good.
    Still virtual trips affect our mind, viewpoints, relationships. Some scientists consider virtual reality as an instrument of spreading violence, pornography and advertising. It can be dangerous for young or mentally ill persons as they can mix a real and a virtual world. Such people don’t adequately realize the complexity of the situation and that there can be no second try if you made a wrong choice. So we can come to a conclusion that virtual reality can be a curse or a blessing and it is up to us to decide.

          In recent years science and technology have changed life on the planet. They help people to improve life for better, making it easier and more comfortable.
          Science and technology used to and still affect each aspect of our lives.
          Today scientists are developing a number of solutions to the urgent scientific problems such as supplying the world with enough energy and fresh water. They believe that the energy problem can be solved by using the energy from the sun and atom. As our planet has limited resources of fresh water, the technological developments and urgent solutions for taking out salt from ocean water may be essential for our lives.
          There are some other urgent problems connected with studying various aspects of human biology and medicine. Scientists in many countries are engaged in solving the problems of AIDS, cancer and other diseases that endanger the existence of mankind.
          The study of urgent scientific problems also provides people with an understanding of the natural world. Scientists are learning to predict earthquakes, storms, floods, hurricanes and other natural phenomena which kill people and cause a lot of damage.
         Science and technology are closely interrelated. Many modern technologies depend on science and scientific research, and each advance in science creates new opportunities for technological developments.

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    Topic: 'The world of science and technology'.(2)

         Science and technology are closely interrelated. On one hand, many modern technologies such as nuclear power and space flights depend on science and scientific research, and each advance in science creates new opportunities for technological developments. In turn, technology provides science with new and more accurate instruments for further investigation and research.

         In recent years science and technology have dramatically changed life on the planet. In the first place they have helped to improve life for people to make it better, easier and more comfortable. In our everyday life we are surrounded by such things as the telephone, television, fridge, computer, satellite dish, microwave oven, washing machine, etc. The satellite dish, for example, enables people to choose films and programmes from over a hundred channels. The advent of computer has made it possible to obtain any information we need through the World Web without getting up from the chair. We are so used to these things, that we them without giving any thought to the fact that they all are results of advanced in science and technology, and we find it very hard to do without the conveniences they provide.  

         If the present patterns continue, science and technology will affect our lives even more in the future than they do now. In some cases life on Earth directly depends on how much science will succeed in solving the most important problems. Today scientists are developing a number of solutions to the problems of supplying the world with enough energy and fresh water. They believe that the energy problem can be solved by using the energy from the sun and atom. As our planet has limited resources of fresh water, the technological developments for taking out salt from ocean water may be essential for our lives.

         Our future life on the planet also depends on the progress in studying   various aspects of human biology and medicine. Scientists in many coun­tries are engaged in solving the problems of AIDS, cancer and other dis­eases that endanger the existence of mankind.

          The study of science also provides people with an understanding of the natural world. Scientists are learning to predict earthquakes, storms, floods, hurricanes and other natural phenomena which kill people and cause a lot of damage.

         Science has analyzed and estimated the world’s mineral resources, which are limited, too. With the knowledge provided by science people must learn to share them for the benefit of men.

         It will not be an exaggeration to say that science and technology are essential to all people living in the modern world.

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    Topic: 'Science and scientists'.(Card 6)

         Modern civilization is everything that has been achieved thanks to science. We can't but agree that science is very important and that it develops our world. But what is science? The scientists are more inter­ested in doing scientific work than in defining it. We say that the work is unscientific if it is inexact, badly arranged and jumps to conclusions without evidence. "Science is built up of facts, as a house built of stones; but accumulation of facts is no more science than a heap of stones is a house." "Science is organized knowledge." (Jules-Henri Poincare). "Sci­entific work must have no object except to find out the truth".(Miguel de Unamuno).

         There are numerous subjects of science. The most important are Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Microbiology, Zoology, Ge­ography, Geology, etc.

         In their work scientists use different methods, techniques and ap­proaches. They build up theories, perform experiments, explore, carry out researches, discover and invent.

         Every human being active possesses two strong impulses: to create and to explore. That is why people have always explored, created and invent­ed something. But there are major inventions and discoveries which have changed our life completely.

         Among the earliest inventions we can't but mention the invention of the early steam engine by Hero of Alexandria in AD 100; the invention of paper by the Chinese in AD 105.

        The seventeenth century saw the development of scientific think­ing on entirely new scale. Scientific ideas were tested by experiments. Isaac Newton developed the theory of Gravity in 1687. The discovery of blood circulation and its mechanism by William Harvey, Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke in 1628 led to great advances in medicine and in the study of the human body.

         The nineteenth and twentieth centuries are notable for the discov­eries and inventions which were a real breakthrough in the world sci­ence. Among them are the  discovery of the law of chemical elements by Dmitry Mendeleev in 1869; of the invention of the telephone by Al­exander Bell in 1876; the invention of the electric light bulb by Thomas Edison in 1879; the invention of a petrol driven car by Karl Benz in 1885; the discovery of radium made by Marie Curie in 1911; the inven­tion of radio by Alexander Popov; the first practical helicopter built up by Igor Sikorski, the invention of television in 1926; the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming in 1928; the discovery of nuclear fis­sion by Lise Meitner in 1939 and many others.

         The telephone could be considered the most important invention in the history of communication. The telephone was thought of by Alex­ander Bell. The first conversation happened in 1876, when Bell was working upstairs his laboratory. Suddenly, the assistant heard Bell's voice on a receiver downstairs: "Mr. Watson, come here, I want you." The first exchange, with operators connecting callers, was opened in Connecticut in 1887.

         Scientific explorations, discoveries and inventions were made by outstanding people like Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Newton, Lomonosov, Edison, Einstein. In most cases the genius of the scientist played the decisive role in creating the invention or discovery of scientific laws.

         Every country is proud of its talented scientists. Russia is a native land for many world famous scientists. Mikhail Lomonosov is a pride of Russia/the national genius; the inspiring image of selfless service to his native land. M. Lomonosov (1711-1765) was born in Kholmogory set­tlement near the city of Arkhangelsk. His father was a seaman. M. Lomonosov started to study at the age of 19. He became the first Russian academician at the age of 33. Lomonosov founded Moscow Uni­versity in 1755. He was a great scientist who made a lot of discoveries in practically all fields of science. There is a monument to Lomonosov in front of Moscow State University which is named after him. But the greatest monument to Lomonosov are his scientific works.

         The monument to Lise Meitner is her discovery of nuclear fission which was a real breakthrough in world science. Lise Meitner was a great scientist. She was born in 1878 in Vienna, Austria. She became interested in science at school and studied at the university. In 1908 she went to do research at Berlin University in Germany, and became a leading professor in chemistry during the First World War. In 1917, Lise and a colleague, Otto Hahn, discovered a new radioactive substance. In  1938, Lise had to run away from her native Austria because of the Second World War. She went to Sweden, where she continued her work with radioactive materials, and in 1939 she published an article in a British scientific paper which first proposed the possibility of a process called nuclear fission. Her discoveries in nuclear physics have played a large part in developing atomic energy. She died in 1968.

         Most distinguished scientists and their inventions and discoveries are ahead of their time. The reason for this is that' science works for the future. It is very important to develop science because a society with­out science is a society without future.

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    УСТНАЯ ЧАСТЬ (8 КЛ.)

    1 часть

    Choosing a career. Jobs.

    1.    Which jobs do you prefer: part-time or full-time? Why?

    2.    What prospects can jobs offer?

    3.    What or who can influence your choice of a job?

    4.    What is the difference between these terms: a job, a profession, a career?

    5.    What professional qualities can different jobs require?

    6.    If you were a doctor, what would you do to be successful in your career?

    Schooling.

    7.    If you had a possibility to work in a state or in a private school, which would you prefer? Why?

    8.    How can schooling be organized in your school?

    9.    Does your school specialize in a certain subject or subjects?

    10.  What improvements would you like to make in your school?

    Shopping.

    11. What makes shopping centers more convenient and attractive for customers?

    12.  If you went to a big shopping center, where would you spend most of your time? Would you spend more time on shopping or entertainment?

    13.  Which of these do you enjoy buying: clothes, food, stationery, books or household goods? Can you explain why?

    14.   What’s the difference between buying things on credit and paying for them immediately?

    15.  Why do a lot of people prefer to pay by cheque or by card? What are their advantages?

    16.  What makes an ideal shop assistant and ideal customer?

    Science and Technology.

    17.  What discoveries in the history of mankind do you regard as breakthroughs?

    18.  What inventions in the history of mankind do you regard as the most important?

    19.  Which of the centuries in your opinion saw the greatest inventions and discoveries?

    20.   What things can you describe as marvels of modern science? And why are they such?

    21. Can you remember any outstanding names of well-known scientists, explorers, inventors and discoverers in Russia, Western Europe and the USA?

    22.  How do you understand the terms “high technology and “new technology”? Do they describe absolutely the same things?

    23.   In what fields of industry do people use robots nowadays?

    24.  What makes the work of a scientist dull on the one hand and exciting on the other?

    25. What in your opinion does a scientist do? Give an example.

    26.Would you like to become a scientist? If you would, what field of research would you choose?

    Travelling.

    27. How do you prefer to travel – by air, by sea or by land – and why?

    28. What are the most expensive (the cheapest) train tickets and plane tickets?

    29. What facilities and conveniences can you find in a long-distance train?

    30.  What formalities do people go through in an airport if they go abroad?

    31.  What is a modern sea liner like?

    32. Which things can make your journey more pleasant?

    33.  What can spoil the impression of your journey?

    34. What was the longest journey you’ve ever made?

    35.  What was the most pleasant journey you’ve ever had? How can you describe it?

    Mass Media.

    36.  What in your opinion are the functions of a newspaper?

    37.  In what order do you read various sections of a newspaper?

    38.  What are the characteristics of a headline?

    39. Why do some articles begin on the front page and continue on the next?

    40. What are the characteristics of a good advertisement? What types of advertisements commonly appear in newspapers?

    41.  Why do people write letters to the editor?

    42. Why do people say that radio and television belong to mass media?

    43. What programme on TV would you try not to miss? Why?

    44.  Which of the programmes do you think are programmes of general interest and which of them cater for minority interests?

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    Card.Shopping.
    Don't forget to mention:

    1.    Describe a shopping and a modern shopping center

    2.    Describe your shopping experience

    3.     Are there other ways of shopping apart from visiting a shopping center?

    4.    Is shopping a necessity or entertainment?

    5.     What shops do you like and can recommend?

    Shopping

    1.                There are many kinds of shops in every town or city, but most of them have a food supermarket, a department store, men's and women's clothing stores, grocery, a bakery. Shopping is an opportunity to buy everything what we need, from food to clothes. Modern shopping centers are universal, well-planned and well-stocked. On the ground floor there is a spectacular decorated hall which has splendid displays of food; china and glass, electronics, kitchenware and clothes.

    2.                I like to do my shopping at big department stores and supermarkets. They sell various goods under one roof which is very convenient. The things for sale are on the counters so that they can be easily seen and chosen by customers. All customers look around, appreciate the prices, choose the right items, model and colour, pay by the cheque, card or in cash and get the change.

    Nowadays you can get a qualified help by shop-assistants who help you with the right size and matching colour, accompany you to the well-constructed and cosy fitting room, and give out the receipt and change. 

    Most shops and shopping centers are convenient and may offer you late-night shopping, recreation areas, special facilities for disabled and elderly people, shopping trolleys and baskets.

    3.                The methods of shopping may vary. It may be a self-service shop where the customer goes from counter to counter selecting and putting into a basket, taking the basket to the check-out counter, paying money to the cashier and bringing goods home. Moreover, we can order goods by telephone and with the help of different catalogues and fashion magazines.

    With the development of progress you can purchase things on the Internet. To attract customers shops provide various services: free home delivery and installation of some gadgets, money-back guarantee, buy and win coupons, repair services, goods on credit and what not.

    4.                Nowadays there are a lot of convenient and attractive shopping centers, which makes shopping a great entertainment and relaxation too.

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