For the 7-th Form

       Card 1. The Russian Federation.
    Don't forget to mention:
    1.         The geographical position of Russia. The territory and population. The landscape, mountain chains, highlands, rivers and lakes, mineral resources.
    4.         What do you know about the climate of Russia?
    5.         The political system.
    6.         The holidays the Russian people celebrate.
    7.         Russian customs and traditions.
    8.         Russian people who glorified their Motherland.


    The Russian Federation

         The official name of our homeland is the Republic of the Russian Federation, often called Russia. It is the largest country in the world; it occupies most of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. The country is washed by 12 seas of 3 oceans: The Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic. In the south Russia borders on China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the west it borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic States, Belorussia, and the Ukraine. It also has a see-border with the USA.
         Russia displays a variety of landforms and environments. It is located on two plains, the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland. The longest mountain chains are the Urals, the Caucasus and the Altai. The largest mountain chain, the Urals, separates Europe from Asia. Russia's most important rivers are the Volga, the Ob, the Yenisei, the Lena, and the Amur. The world's deepest lake - Lake Baikal, with the deeps of 1600 meters, is situated in Russia, too. The climate in Russia varies from the arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. In the middle of the country the climate is temperate and continental. We have steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands and deserts in the east.
         The National Government of Russia consists of the President, the Council of Ministers and the Federal Assembly. There are two Houses in the Federal Assembly, the Federal Council and the State Duma. The head of the Republic of the Russian Federation is V.V.Putin , and the Prime Minister is D.A.Medvedyev. The highest law of the Russian Federation is the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The official symbol of Russia is the Russian flag; it has three wide stripes - white, blue and red. Many people believe that traditional symbols of Russia are the birch tree and the Russian "troika".
         The current population of Russia is about 150 million; Russia is a land of over 100 nationalities. Many Russians are religious people. The main church is the Russian Orthodox Church. It has survived during the hard times and now people speak about a rebirth of religion in the country. There are other religions too and there are a lot of people who are non-believers.
    To know a country means to know its people. There are a lot of famous people of Russia: the greatest poets and writers Alexander Pushkin, Leo Tolstoy, Feodor Dostoevsky; Peter Tchaikovsky, a Russian composer; Isaak Levitan, a Russian artist; Georgy Zhukov, a famous marshal of the USSR; the first Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin and many, many others. The nation has done a lot for the world civilization.
         Russia has had a long and turbulent history. Rus' centered on Kiev was formed in the 9th century; we've survived the Tater yoke, the Time of Troubles, won victories over Sweden, Poland, Germany; Russia has had two Revolutions, two great Patriotic Wars. The memory of World War II is deeply felt in Russia.
         The capital of Russia is Moscow, with the population of about 10 million people. It is its political, scientific, cultural and industrial centre. It’s one of the oldest Russian cities.

    Card 2. Moscow, the Capital of Russia.
    Don't forget to mention:
    1.         The history of Moscow, important historical events.
    2.         What attracts many people to visit Moscow.
    3.         The heart of Moscow, the Kremlin and Red Square and what you can see there ( add more details to historical places).
    4.         Prove that Moscow is the political, economic, educational and cultural center.
    5.         What places of historical and architectural interest would you advise to see?
    6.          Say a few words about your favourite place in Moscow.


          Moscow is the capital of Russia, its political, economic, and commercial and cultural centre. Prince Yuri Dolgoruky founded it 8 centuries ago. It was first mentioned in the records dated back to the year 1147. At that time it was a small fortress. Gradually the city became more and more powerful.
         In the 13th century Moscow was the centre of the struggle of Russian lands for the liberation from the tartar yoke. The Kremlin and all the buildings within were reduced to ashes.
    In the 16th century under Ivan the Terrible Moscow became the capital of the new united state.     

         Though Peter the Great moved the capital to St Petersburg in 1712, Moscow remained the heart of Russia. That is why it became the main target of Napoleon's attack. Three-quarters of the city were destroyed by the fire during Napoleon's occupation; but by the mid-19th century Moscow had been completely restored. After the October revolution Moscow became the capital again.
         Now Moscow is one of the largest cities in Europe. Its total area is about nine hundred square kilometers (ancient Moscow occupied the territory of the present-day Kremlin). The population of the city is over 10 million.
    Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. It attracts tourists from all over the world.
         The Kremlin is a masterpiece of ancient Russian architecture. It is the oldest part of Moscow. The main Kremlin tower, the Spasskaya Tower, has become the symbol of Russia and Moscow. It has a famous clock; one can hear its chimes on the radio. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see old cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, the Palace of (Congresses, the Tzar-Cannon and the Tzar-Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world.
    Outside the Kremlin Wall there is  famous Red Square. It is the heart of Moscow. It has more historic associations than any other place in Moscow. Tourists can look at the magnificent St Basil's Cathedral (Vasily Blazheny), the Lenin Mausoleum and the monument to K.Minin and D. Pozharsky. St Basil's Cathedral was built in the mid-16th century in memory of the victory over Kazan. There is a legend that Ivan the Terrible blinded the architects Barma and Postnik, because he didn't want them to create another masterpiece.
         There are a lot of beautiful palaces, old mansions, cathedrals, churches and monuments in      Moscow. Now Moscow is being reconstructed and we all hope that in a few years the city will become even more beautiful.
         There are more than 80 museums in Moscow. The largest museums are the Tretyakov Gallery and the Pushkin Museurn of Fine Arts. They contain a unique collection of Russian and Foreign painters including Impessionists. Other unique museums in Moscow include the All-Russia Museum of Folk Arts, the Andrei Rublev Museum of Early Russian Art, and Alexei Bakhrushin Theatre Museum. Mikhail Glinka Museum of Musical Culture and many others.
    Moscow is famous for its theatres. The best known of them is the Bolshoi Opera House. Drama theatres and studios art also very popular.
         Moscow is a city of students. There are over 80 higher educational institutions in it, including several universities.
         Moscow is the seat of the Russian Parliament (the Duma) and the centre of political life of the country.

    Card 3. Language learning.
    Mention the following:
    1. Reasons why a lot of people all over the world learn English.
    2. The language in the times of Julius Caesar and William Shakespeare.
    3. Prove that English is one of the richest languages in the world.
    4. Borrowings in the E. Language.
    5. Think of more reasons why you want to know English.
    6. What are the ways of learning a foreign language?
    7. English at school, any difficulties.
    8. What are your strong and weak points?
    9. How are you planning to use English in future?


         Million of people are learning English. 20% of the world's population speak it as their first language. For the 600 million it is either a second or foreign language. It is a way in which people who have different languages communicate with each other. This is especially true in many parts of Africa and India.
         Do you know that English includes many languages such as Greek and Latin, Slavonic languages: Russian, Polish, some European languages including French, Spanish, Swedish and German? The family that English belongs to is the Indo-European family of languages.
    Words used in modern English for ordinary objects are mostly Anglo-Saxon or Germanic in origin. Words of the Germanic origin are usually short and tend to be informal in modern English. They are: shoe, clothes, earth, sun, moon, day man, wife, child, friend, water, food, live have, work and other. Many of the words came to England with the French-speaking Normans. Norman-French was used as the language of government. They are longer than words of Germanic origin ond often have a more formal meaning, for example: government, parliament, judge, court, military, army, nation, country, people and many others. You can identify Latin words by the following suffixes: - ion, -tion, -ate, -able, -ant, -ent, -or, al etc.. For example: collect, connect, opinion, create, relation, legion, disagree, familia, graduate, candle. Italian words are the following: piano, violin, opera, libretto, colonel. International words are: philosophy, Maths, biology, medicine, music, drama, chemistry, physics, comedy, artist, revolution, radio, television, democracy and so on.
         Words from foreign countries have entered English as a result of trade and colonial expansion: alcohol, algebra form Arabic, divan and khaki from Persian, chocolate and tomato from native American languages, tea from China.
    So you see that English is the mixture of many languages.
         English has several periods of development, for example: Early English, Old English, Middle English and Modern English.
         It is the language of summit meetings, international trade, most of companies in Europe communicate in English, 75% of all international telexes and letters are in English, 80% of all information in the world's computers is English. Pop singers writing their songs often use lyrics or phrases in English. America and Britain export thousands of films and TV programmes every year. Now English words have started to become a part of other languages, too. In France this new vocabulary is called "Franglais", in Spain - Spanglish, in Japan - Japlish, in Sweden - Swinglish.
         I began learning English when I was in the first form so I have been learning English for almost six years now. Every day we learn different things which are very important in any language: grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, intonation, translating and interpreting. And we are taught them in different ways.
         I think that you must know grammar well if you want to master a language. But, in my opinion, it's very difficult to learn grammar, especially when we are taught it in isolation. What I mean is that you need to practise grammar together with vocabulary. And we often have a lot of grammar drills which are rather boring. To my mind, if we learned grammar using computer programs and Round-Up Grammar Practice books, it would be much more interesting.
    Another serious problem is phrasal verbs. Each preposition or adverb changes the meaning of the verb. We don't have such a problem in Russian. It makes phrasal verbs very difficult to learn. As for the vocabulary, in my opinion, it's better to learn a few words at a time and practise them, rather than a lot of words by heart. You can memorize new words better if you learn them in their typical collocations. And another good way to remember new words is to make your own sentences with them.
        A lot of students find English pronunciation hard, especially intonation, which is the most difficult part of pronunciation. Right intonation is very important because if you get it wrong, people may think that you are rude. We are taught English intonation by listening to native speakers and repeating after them which, in my opinion, is the best way of learning it. i think that the most effective activities which help you to" enlarge you vocabulary are singing songs, playing different games and watching different programs in English. Singings songs is the most interesting and useful of all of them because when you sing you memorize the words much better than when you read poetry without music.
         We sometimes read different books and newspapers in English. This is another good way of enlarging you vocabulary because when you read you can often guess the meaning of words you don't know from the context. Then I usually look up new words in the dictionary and make notes of them which helps me to remember them.
         And finally, translating and interpreting practice, especially from Russian into English, is the activity that helps you to feel confident in the language. Russian and English are very different, and only such practice can help you master the language.

    Card 4.Me and My World
    Mention the following things:
    1.         "No one in the world looks exactly alike, even identical twins..."
    2.         Everybody is different but we are all equal.
    3.         Introduce yourself.
    4.         Your likes and dislikes.
    5.         School, favourite subjects, your friends (describe one of them, appearance, features of character). Who makes a good friend?
    6.         Your hobbies and favourite pastimes.
    7.         In what way is your family important for you?
    8.         What would you like to do in future?
    9.         What kind of person would you like to be?


    Me and my world
         I'd like to say that my family are probably the most important people in my life. There are five of us: my mom and dad, grandma, my elder sister, and me. I also have a lot of aunts, uncles, and cousins, but they don't live with us, although it's great fun meeting them from time to time. I like it a lot when we get together, for example, on New Year's Eve, babies, teenagers, middle-aged and elderly people, light candles on the table and the lights on the New Year tree. It sounds like an ideal family, doesn't it? On the other hand, we haven't got a very large flat, and when you have to share your room with a lot of children, it's quite a struggle. But we all are good friends, and if somebody of us pulls a face, there will always turn somebody up to pull his or her leg to ease the tension.
         We've got another family tradition, my birthday. It starts with a knock at the door and excited 'Happy Birthday' of my people, and at the end of the day it turns into a cheerful party, with bouncy children and smiling adults sitting at the nicely laid table. I always regret that such a day has to come to an end.
         In general, we don't spend too much time together, but I love it when we go out, for example to the cinema or the theatre, although my parents don't often agree to watch children's films. We enjoy going to picturesque places, we love our dacha, where we spend our weekends in the open air, the garden, the dog there that I'm trying to train and teach tricks. We often invite friends, both mine and my parents', and it's good to have friends!
         I should say that I don't have a lot of friends, but those whom I call so, are my close ones. One of my friends, .... is my classmate, another is my neighbor, they are of my age and we share the same interests and spend our free time together. ... and me, for example, collect coins, and we always ask each other for advice, exchange coins, go to see famous exhibitions to get some knowledge of the history of them, and we're even thinking of joining a club. With my another friend, ... we go in for dancing and train regularly. But my closest, I dare say, is .... She is so kind, intelligent, and reliable, she always supports me, encourages me in what I do, and we have so much in common, that I can say she is really my second self, another me. We spend our time chatting, watching videos, going to discos, Internet clubs, just wandering round the district, and without any doubt I'm happy that she moved here a couple of years ago.
         Unfortunately, we don't often meet up during our school weekdays, as we have loads of work. I don't mind doing my homework because I understand that it's an important part of my education and it's not that hard to cope with, but I just can't stand the idea of spending all day working. But I pull myself together and do what I must. Later in the evening I will unwind by listening to my favourite songs, watching the telly, talking over the phone, playing on the computer. Then I sleep like a log - always.

    Card 5. Your Favourite Writer and Book.
    Speak about:
    1.         The role of books in people's life.
    2.          The most popular types of books.
    3.          Famous English and American writers.
    4.         Your favourite writer and his book.( Give short information about him and the book you like, the main characters).
    5.         What books do you prefer to read.
    6.         Say what Russian classics have you read.
    7.         Say how you choose books.


    “My favourite book” (1)
         My favourite book is "White Fang" by Jack London, an American writer. He was born in 1876 and died in 1916. Jack London wrote mainly adventure stories and "White Fang" is one of them.
         The plot of the novel is very fast-moving and keeps the reader in suspense. A half-dog, half wolf gets to the Indians and they give him the name White Fang. He has a very hard life there. Both the people and the dogs hate him and he has to learn to fight severely and run fast, otherwise he won't survive.
         Then he gets to a cruel man whose name is Smith, who beats and tortures the dog making him malicious so that he could win prizes in dog fights.
         Fortunately, a noble man Weedon Scott buys him from Smith. They get used to each other, then there is love between them, but Mr. Scott has to leave soon. White Fang suffers very much and finally Mr. Scott makes a decision to take the dog with him.
         The episode that impressed me greatly is when White Fang saves Scott's father, but gets three bullets and breaks his legs and ribs. Everyone thinks that he has no chance to survive, but luckily all ends well.
         I  recommend this book to everyone who hasn't read it, and especially to those who love animals. It is powerful and true-to-life, well-written and easy to read. I think it will make a great impression on the reader.
    “My favourite book” (2)
         My favourite book is Jonathan Livingston Seagull. It is a fable in novella form about a seagull learning about life and flight. This book was written by Richard Bach, a widely known American writer. It was first published in 1970 and immediately became a hugely popular bestseller.
         The book has and exciting and original plot. It tells the story of Jonathan Livingston, a seagull who is bored with the daily quarrel over food. He has a passion for flight and tries to learn everything he can about flying. But he does not want to follow the rules of his flock and it leads him into conflict with other seagulls. Eventually they turn their backs on him and expel him from the flock. An outcast, Jonathan continues to learn, trying to reach higher and higher flight goals until he understands he can fly to higher.
         One day, Jonathan is met by two loving seagulls who explain to him that he has learnt much, and that they want to teach him more. They take him to a "higher plane of existence", a society where all the gulls enjoy flying. Jonathan makes friends with the wisest gull in this new place, named Chiang, who takes him anywhere else in the Universe. Chiang tells him that a seagull is an unlimited idea of freedom, an image of the Great Gull. He says, "You have the freedom to be yourself, your true self, here and now, and nothing can stand in your way." Chiang also teaches him that the spirit cannot be really free without the ability to forgive and love others.
    Finally, Jonathan returns to Earth to find others like him, to bring them his learning and to spread his love for flight.
         The main characters of this book - Jonathan and his teacher Chiang - are described very vividly and seem true to life. As the plot of the book is amazing and powerful, it has made a very deep impression on me. I think it's the book to read. I would definitely recommend it to everyone.